Prior to the founding of the United States, white identity predominated all social interactions, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries, and white supremacy came to symbolize American identity. Slavery existed in the North as well as the South, and Northerners, not Southern slave owners, were those who helped shape the idea of the United States of America. Despite this, Americans frequently blame Southern slavery for racism. This was explained by the historian Donald Yacovone, an associate at the Hutchins Center for African & African American Research and a 2013 winner of the W.E.B. Du Bois medal. (Mineo, Liz.).
African American soldiers were subjected to mistreatment, racial discrimination, and physical abuse by their white officers at a number of these camps, including Camp Sherman in Ohio, Camp Eustis in Virginia, Camp Humphreys in Virginia, and Camp Lee in Virginia. African American troops were frequently demoted in rank or prevented from advancing. Since the Civil War era, the US Army had been segregated and had only a small number of black officers. Traditionally, black officers were allowed to command only black troops while white officers commanded both black and white units. Unfortunately, because of institutional racism, the US Army was not ready to provide equal treatment to African American soldiers (Mitchell, Calvin.).